A reaction network scheme for hidden Markov model parameter learning

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With a view towards artificial cells, molecular communication systems, molecular multiagent systems and federated learning, we propose a novel reaction network scheme (termed the Baum-Welch (BW) reaction network) that learns parameters for hidden Markov models (HMMs). All variables including inputs and outputs are encoded by separate species. Each reaction in the scheme changes only one molecule of one species to one molecule of another. The reverse change is also accessible but via a different set of enzymes, in a design reminiscent of futile cycles in biochemical pathways. We show that every positive fixed point of the BW algorithm for HMMs is a fixed point of the reaction network scheme, and vice versa. Furthermore, we prove that the 'expectation' step and the 'maximization' step of the reaction network separately converge exponentially fast and compute the same values as the E-step and the M-step of the BW algorithm. We simulate example sequences, and show that our reaction network learns the same parameters for the HMM as the BW algorithm, and that the log-likelihood increases continuously along the trajectory of the reaction network.

TidsskriftJournal of the Royal Society Interface
Udgave nummer203
StatusUdgivet - 2023

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
The work presented in this article is supported by Novo Nordisk Foundation, grant no. NNF19OC0058354. A.B. thanks Bharti Center for Communication, IIT Bombay. A.S. thanks the INSPIRE DST Scholarship for Higher Education.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors.

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