Concentration of small Hawking type surfaces

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

  • Alexander Friedrich

We investigate the Hawking energy of small surfaces in space times without symmetry assumptions by introducing the notion of Hawking type functionals. In particular, we find that Hawking type functionals are generalized Willmore functionals which allows us to find area constrained, minimizing, immersed, haunted bubble trees. These bubble trees are smooth spheres provided their area is small enough. Following a similar analysis of the Willmore functional conducted by T. Lamm and J. Metzger we characterize the concentration points of area constrained, critical surfaces for Hawking type functionals and the Hawking energy. Moreover, we determine their expansion on small surfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101927
JournalDifferential Geometry and its Application
Pages (from-to)1-23
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022

    Research areas

  • Hawking energy, Mathematical general relativity, Quasi-local energy, Willmore functional


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